Life expectancy was about 35 years for men and 25 for women, many dying in childbirth.
From 800-1000 the hierarchical organization of society included a slave class amounting to about 10% of the population as victims of war. The Doomesday Book records that between 1066 and 1086 4,500 Anglo-Saxon aristocrats were replaced by about 180 Norman barons. Below thee in the social heurarchy were about 1400 landowners, mostly, Norman and below these about 6,000, mainly Anglo-Saxon, sub-tenants.
The keeping of records improved greatly through the 12-13th centuries giving a picture of the role of crafts and industries mostly as employees of the Lord of the Manor and including smiths, carpenters, tilers, masons. From 1280-1340 there is the more general addition of surnames based on trade, to the former single-word name,, partly in response to the need for distinguishing people in record systems.
Country life centred around the manorial estate which had its own law courts.
1160-1216 royal Common Law arose.
Education & learning
Medicinal literature included Bald’s Leechbok (c. 900-925) and Lacnunga (c. 1010) written in Old English and containing a mix of charms and herbal remedies, also translations of Dioscorides’s Materia Medica dating from c. 1000.
science & technology
In Britain women could own and deal in property.
Finance & taxation
Commerce & trade
Mining & manufacture
Some iron and coal mining.
Engineering & construction
Motte and bailey and ringwork castles were eventually replaced as, from the 12th century, society became more integrated and stone buildings became much more common. Norman architecture remained evident in the magnificent churches and cathedrals.
Transport & communication