List of cultivars
The following list of native plant genera is a summary reference to information and key literature concerning the production, cultivation and research done on cultivars within each genus.
Acacia has been the subject of a SGAP Study Group (Eisen, 2004). Most cultivars are the result of open pollination and seedling selection although Acacia ‘Scarlet Blaze’ is a wild selection. Selections have been made of A. pravissima and there is the very popular Acacia cognata ‘Limelight. The popular Acacia cardiophylla ‘Wyalong Wattle’ and A. cognata ‘Green Mist’ were produced by Tree Planters nursery, Springvale, Melbourne.
Boden, Robert W. 1969. ‘Variation and Inheritance of Flowering in Acacia baileyana.’ Australian Plants 5: 230-1, 235-6.
Philp, J. & Sherry, S.P. 1946. ‘The Degree of Natural Crossing in Green Wattle Acacia decurrens Willd. and its Bearing on Wattle Breeding.’ Journal of the South African Forestry Association 14: 1–28.
Cross, Rob 2001. ‘Acacia leprosa ‘Scarlet Blaze’: Victoria’s Federation Flower.’ Australian Plants 21(169): 199–201.
Hitchcock, M. 2004. ‘The Dwarf Acacia Cultivar Evolution.’ Australian Plants 22(180): 323–325.
Acacia amblygona ‘Austraflora Winter Gold. 1978 AP 10: 169–170.
Acacia pravissima ‘Golden Carpet’. 1978 AP 10: 170.
Acmena smithii ‘Hedgemaster’ Don Burke, Kenthurst seedling selection. See also Syzygium for “Lilly Pilly” selections.
Actinotus helianthi ‘Starbright’ was raised by RBG Sydney in 1997 by recurrent phenotypic selection over 9 years and tested for tissue culture and hardiness.
Adenanthos meissneri has been the subject of seedling selection and propagation by cuttings.
Cultivars in this genus are all selections of A. flexuosa selected for their pendulous, exceptionally fine, broad or variegated foliage, or low and compact habit.
Agonis flexuosa ‘Variegata’ AP 1976 8: 325-326.
Agonis flexuosa ‘Fairy Foliage’ AP 1977 9: 80.
From the earliest days of native plant cultivation Kangaroo Paw has had ornamental appeal. Breeders include Burbank Biotechnology Pty Ltd, Wyong, NSW from about 1995. In recent times there has been increasing use of controlled pollination and micropropagation e.g. Forbio Plants Pty Ltd and Yates Botanicals Pty Ltd, Somersby (see Hopper, 1979).
Oliver, K.R. 1971. ‘New Kangaroo Paws.’ Australian Plants 6: 60-64.
Anon. 1971. ‘A New Hibiscus Hybrid. (Hibiscus ‘Wirruna’).’ Australian Plants 6: 104.
Anigosanthos ‘Pin Joey’ AP 1976 8: 326-327.
Motum, G., Stewart, I.A. & Goodwin, P.B. 1985 ”Kangaroo Paw. A Hybridisation and Breeding Program.” Australian Plants 13 (105): 196–199.
Dixon, Bob & Sue 1991. “Kangaroo paw – Plants for Horticulture – Forms and Iterspecific and Intraspecific Hybrids.” Australian Plants 16 (126): 47–50.
Hansa, Alex, Fairhill Nursery 1991. “Hybrid Paws in Queensland.” Australian Plants 16 (126): 51.
Moore, Alison 1991. “Growing Hybrid Kangaroo Paws in Tasmania.” Australian Plants 16 (126): 51–52.
Oliver, Keith R. 1991. “Hybrid Kangaroo Paws.” Australian Plants 16 (126): 53.
Bowden, Adrian G. 1991. “The Western Star Kangaroo Paws.” Australian Plants 16 (126): 62–65. (with list)
Biotech 1991. “The “Bush Gem” Hybrid Kangaroo Paws.” Australian Plants 16 (126): 66. (with list)
Anon 1991. “The Southern Aurora Kangaroo Paws.” Australian Plants 16 (126): 67–69.
ACRA 1991. “Kangaroo Paw Cultivars”. Australian Plants 16 (126): 75–76.
Payne, William H. 1994. “Kangaroo Paws in Horticulture”. Australian Plants 18 (141): 21.
Dietch, Dick 1991. Hybrid Kangaroo Paws – The Victa Mower Versus Ink disease. Australian Plants 16 (128): 174–178.
Oliver, Keith, R. 1992 “Kangaroo paws – Pests and Diseases.” Australian Plants 17 (133): 23–26.
Anderson, Richard 1992. “‘Bush Gem’ Kangaroo Paws.” Australian Plants 17 (133): 27–29.
Scarvelis, John 2003. ‘Australia’s Kangaroo Paws.’ Australian Plants 22(176): 107–114.
Baeckea virgata ‘Howie’s Feathertips’and ‘Howie’s Sweet Midget’ are seedling variants.
Banksia from the Waite Agricultural Research Institute of the University of Adelaide. ‘Waite Crimson’, ‘Waite Flame’.WM Molyneux Austraflora ‘Birthday Candles’ seedling selection. Banksia canei ‘Celia Rosser’ the specific epithet commemorating Bill Cane is a chance seedling.
Sedgley, Margaret 1999. New Banksia released (inc. Research reports (with Mary Rieger, and Banksia as a Cut-flower and for General Horticulture). Australian Plants 20 (158): 43–55.
B. rubioides double flowers
B. thujona – double flowers. B. megastigma ‘Chandleri’ commemorates the Chandler family who lived in the township of Boronia in the foothills of the Dandenongs where they had a nursery (Chandlers Nursery) and grew Boronia for the cut flower industry.
Hybrids e.g. Boronia heterophylla x B. megastigma ‘Purple Jared’ have been produced by the University of WA.
Bert Chandler & Son 1963. ‘The Brown Boronia and its Forms.’ Australian Plants 2: 144-45.
Australian Cultivar Registration Authority (1982). ‘Australian Plant Cultivars.’ Australian Plants 11(90): 263
Plant Growers Australia of Wonga Park have made selections of Brachyscome using controlled and open pollination and selection. Brachyscome ‘Toucan Tango’ was raised in Germany by Innova Plant GmbH & Co KG.
Cultivars are either wild selections or the result of controlled pollination and propagation of selections by vegetative tip cuttings as at Redlands Nursery also by Rodger and Gwen Elliot.
Bracteantha bracteata ‘Diamond Head’ AP 1977 9: 204 (comment p. 205); 1990 (124): 342.
Bracteantha bracteata ‘Barleythorpe’ AP 1990 15 (124): 341.
Bracteantha bracteata ‘Cockatoo’ AP 1990 15 (124): 341
Bracteantha bracteata ‘Dargan Hill Monarch’ AP 1990 15 (124): 341
Bracteantha bracteata ‘Golden Bowerbird’ AP 1990 15 (124): 342
Bracteantha bracteata ‘Hastings Gold’ AP 1990 15 (124): 342
Bracteantha bracteata ‘Princess of Wales’ AP 1990 15 (124): 343
Gorst, Janet R. & O’Brien, Lin 2002. ‘Bracteantha Micropropagation.’ Australian Plants 21(171): 307.
Over 300 cultivars of callistemon have been named, only 23 of which have been submitted to ACRA for registration, but there is considerable confusion over their identity and, as many in fact may be the same, perhaps the total number is fewer. Most callistemon cultivars have been selected for flower colour or habit. Callistemon viminalis especially has been the selection of habit variations taken from its wide natural distribution range. These habit variants have been the source of some nomenclatural confusion. Queensland pioneer grower, field botanist, and nurseryman George Trapnell introduced many cultivars selected from the wild often assisted by photographer and naturalist Keith Williams. The first cultivar submitted for PBR was Callistemon salignus ‘Great Balls of Fire’. The work of Wrigley and Fagg (1993) in preparing a description of callistem cultivars and attempting to sort out the associated nomenclatural confusion were assisted by the work and collections of Harry Infield, for many years the leader of the Callistemon Study Group of the SGAP and his callistemon arboretum at Demesne Park on the mid-north coast of New South Wales (he also raised many new selections) also by Brisbane nurseryman Ted Knight who ran a callistemon nursery in the school grounds of the Redlands Special School in Thornlands and was assisted by Brisbane grower Colin Cornford.
Most cultivars have been selected for the colour of their stamen filaments, essentially a range of whites, yellows and cream on the one hand and violets, pinks and reds on the other. Considering the subtle variations that can occur in these two colour groups, and that the filament colour can vary with age, it is not surprising that the RHS colour chart has been used to indicate colour using flowers that are mature but freshly “opened”.
Outstanding cultivars include ‘Harkness’, purchased in 1937 and used for cuttings in 1948 … C. citrinus ‘Splendens’ is listed by the ?New RHS Dictionary of Gardening as the “finest of the genus”. ‘King’s Park Special’. ‘Lilacinus’ is the earliest known cultivar of Callitemon, the seed collected near Como in NSW and raised in Berlin in 1913. (Wrigley & Fagg, 1993, p. 100). ‘Little John’ was awarded a Gold Medal by the Tree and Shrub growers Group of the NIAA in 1986.
Recent breeding has recently been based on the controlled pollination of ‘Captain Cook’(seed) and ‘Little John’ (pollen), crossed again, then selection and cuttings
Infield, Harry. 1990. ‘Callistemon the Bottlebrush Colour Parade.’ Australian Plants 16 (125): 3–9.
Payne, William H.. 1990. “Australia’s Bottlebrushes.” Australian Plants 16 (125): 19–22. (with list of cultivars)
Cornford, Colin1992. ‘More Callistemon Cultivars.’ Australian Plants 17 (134): 62. (list of names compiled by Callistemon Study Group)
Williams, Byron 2007. ‘Callistemon Magic.’ Australian Plants 24(190): 12–18.
Anon. 1966. ’Callistemon ‘Harkness’’. Australian Plants 3: 349.
Callistemon ‘Harkness’ AP 1978 10: 23.
Callistemon ‘Mauve Mist’ AP 1978 10: 23–24.
Callistemon ‘Reeve’s Pink’ AP 1978 10: 24.
Callistemon ‘Wollumbin’ AP 1978 10: 24-25.
Callistemon ‘Burgundy’ AP 1978 10: 25.
Callitris ‘Golden Zero’ AP 1977 9: 205.
Allocasuarina littoralis ‘Matuka Silver’ white variegation
Ceratopetalum ‘Festival’ was selected by Yellow Rock Nursery.
Ceratopetalum gummiferum ‘Christmas Snow’ AP 1977 9: 82.
Ceratopetalum gummiferum ‘White Christmas’ AP 1977 9: 205.
Over the period 1980-2000 Chamelaucium has become one of the biggest flower crops in the world in terms of both value and volume of production and in 1998 there were 31 cul;tivars registered with ACRA of which 17 were protected by PBR and and probably over 100 unregistered (Dawson, 1999 p. 110). This genus is the most widely explored Australian cultivar as it has proved a profitable item in the floristry industry, mostly by selection of seedlings of open pollinated plants and propagation by cuttings. Breeding and selection ahs been performed by the NSW Dept. Ag. & Fish and their NSW agent Vantree Pty Ltd; Australian Wax Farms of Westy Perth, WA; Greg Lamont NSW Ag & Horticulture Station, Gosford and Redlands Nursery. Some cultivars have been produced by hand pollination and embryo extraction and hybrids include: C. uncinatum x C. axillare, C. megalopetalum x C. uncinatum and even the intergeneric cross C. uncinatum x Verticordia plumosa.
Citrus australasica var. sanguinea was raised by Erika Birmingham, Byron bay Native Produce, Bangalow, NSW. (Erika Birmingham) by open pollination and seedling selection.
Payne, Bill 2001. ‘Correa cultivars’. Australian Plants 21(169): 190–193.
Hitchcock, Maria 2003. ‘Description of Species, Varieties and Cultivars.’ Australian Plants 22(174): 15–38.
Carmen, Paul 2003 ‘Grafting Correa’. Australian Plants 22(174): 39–42.
Gibson, Robert 2003. ‘Artificially Crossed Crinums’. Australian Plants 22(174): 105–106.
Cooper, Rene 1982. “Crowea ‘Festival’ a Hybrid of Crowea exalata x C. saligna.” Australian Plants 11 (92): 375.
Landscape plantings have been explored through seedling selection, vegetative division and micropropagation of Dianella revoluta.
Most variants are seedling selections e.g. Philotheca myoporoides ‘Lime Delight’. There are several double-flowerd variants of E. verrucosus (ellis,
Anon. 1963. “Eriostemon Garden Cultivars.” Australian Plants 2:71. (includes 4 Clearview selections)
Ellis, Peter N 1968. “Double Waxflowers”. Australian Plants 4(36): 4-6.
Flower colour and size e.g. red and pink forms of E. leucoxylon, E. sideroxylon, E. melliodora, E. largiflorens, C. ficifolia, C. calophylla. Large flowers E. caesia, E. leucoxylon f. macrocarpa
Eucalyptus ST Henry, Glasshouse Mts, Qld ‘Summer Beauty and ’’Summer Red’ produced by controlled pollination and selection with propagation by grafting. Hybridisation has been explored (Beardsell et al., 1978). The hybrid Corymbia ptychocarpa x C. ficifolia has produced ‘Summer Snow’ by controlled pollination and propagated by grafts. C. ficifolia colour variants by recurrent phenotypic selection, then by seed.
Corymbia ficifolia and C. calophylla have long been suspected of producing putative hybrids and there are many colour variants that have at times been given both botanical and cultivar names. With C. calophylla ‘Rosea’ supposedly originating from a selection made by Director of the Royal Botanic Gardens Melbourne, William Guilfoyle, in 1893 (see Spencer, 2002).
Eucalyptus caesia ‘Silver Princess’ Australian Plants 1977 9: 80.
Delaporte, Kate L. & Sedgley, Margaret Ornamental Eucalypts. Species for Cut bud and Flower Production. Australian Plants 20 (164): 354–358.
Purse, John 2005 ‘Eucalyptus pulverulenta ‘Baby blue’ – A Genetic Mystery.’ Australian Plants 23(185): 153–155.
Glocke, P. et al. 2006. ‘Eucalyptus erythronema X E. stricklandii.’ Australian Plants 23(188): 301–305.
Eucryphia lucida ‘Leatherwood Cream’ AP 1977 9: 82.
Native species are bred and selected for their agricultural use, mostly a fodder. Glycine latifolia as a forage plant CSIRO Div Trop Crops & Pastures, St Lucia, Qld.
A popular subject for selection because of the variety of growth habits, foliage forms and colours, and flower colours and forms; also because the genus can be propagated by cuttings and there is the potential for hybridization. A few cultivars have been raised by deliberate hybridization but most have arisen as chance seedlings. The early selection of grevilleas was mostly by Leo Hodge on the property ‘Poorinda’ in the 1950s and 60s (Tully, 1977) moving to Mount Lookout near Bairnsdale in 1971 but retaining the name ‘Poorinda’. He registered 39 Grevillea cultivars up to 1985 many of doubtful value but with exceptions. ‘Royal Mantle’ must be one of the most successful of all native cultivars.
G. alpina, with many geographic forms, is the source of many Poorinda and Austraflora cultivars.
G. aquifolia has many leaf forms and variants
G. ‘Audrey’ original plant still existed at the Nindethana Nursery site in 1985.
An account of the history of Grevillea cultivation and the personalities and nurseries involved, as well as background to the SGAP Grevillea Study Group, is given in Olde & Marriott (1994, pp.109–119).
Media personality Don Burke raised a number of Grevillea cultivars named as popular drinks including ‘Cherry Brandy’ (1980), ‘White Wine’ (1982), ‘Pink Champagne’.
George Lullfitz has crossed Grevillea filifolia x G. preissii and Austraflora has produced crosses of Grevillea juniperina. Peter Zoller of Redlands nursery has used controlled pollination techniques. There are also a range of tropical hybrids (Costin, R. & S., 1988).
Clark, Tony 1986. ‘Grevillea ‘Winpara Gem’ Grevillea olivacea, Grevillea thelemanniana. The Development of a Cultivar.’ Australian Plants 13 (106): 279–280.
Gordon, David N. 1974. ‘Grevillea ‘Robyn Gordon’’. Australian Plants 7: 303–305.
Verdon, D. 1974. ‘Grevillea juniperina ‘Molongolo’.’ Australian Plants 7: 302.
Costin, Russell & Costin, Sharon. 1988. ‘Tropical Grevillea Hybrids.’ Australian Plants 14 (116): 335–343.
Hodge, Merv 2002. ‘Popular Hybrids: Grevillea.’ Australian Plants 21(170): 235–243.
Hodge, Merv 2002. ‘Robyn Gordon Grevillea Complex.’ Australian Plants 21(173): 383–385.
Payne, Bill H. 2002. ‘Grevillea Cutivars’. Australian Plants 21(170): 272.
Doig, Ross 2007. ‘Hardenbergias for the Garden.’ Australian Plants 24(190): 37.
Seedling selections have been made by Austraflora and other nurseries including Hardenbergia ‘Bushy Blue’ released by R Weidner in California.
Wall, Rosemary 2007. ‘Hardenbergia ‘Allyn sugar Plum’.’ Australian Plants 24(190): 31.
Hockings, David 2008. “Hibiscus Cultivars”. Australian Plants 24: 351-2.
Only one cultivar, Kunzea ‘Badja Carpet’, is known from this genus: it is a selection from an undescribed wild species growing on Mt Badja in south-east New South Wales and listed botanically under the phrase name Kunzea sp. (Wadbilliga). Both names will be subsumed by the new species name when the plant is given a formal botanical description.
Work has been done on Lechenaultia by the Lullfitz Nursery. Lechenaultia controlled pollination breeding has been done at Kings Park between L. laricina x L. floribunda.
Lechenaultia ‘White Flush’ AP 1976 8: 328.
Although there are many Tea tree cultivars on the market most of these are derived from the New Zealand L. scoparium. Wrigley and Fagg (1993, p. 183) note that there is potential for breeding between a number of species in the genus although the genus is prone to attack by a number of pests and diseases. Most of the selections are for dwarf or prostrate habit, perhaps the most notable being L. polygalifolium ‘Pacific Beauty’, but there are also a few selections which have bronze leaves or unusual flower colour. Of the few Australian cultivars these occur in L. brevipes, L. continentale, L. flavescens, L. laevigatum. Peter Ollerenshaw of Bywong Nsy, Bungendore, NSW has used controlled pollination for cultivar crosses. Austraflora has produced seedling selections of L. liversidgei and L. laevigatum.
This genus has proved very popular for landscaping through the late 90.s and 2010. Most cultivars vave been produced by the open pollination and seedling selection of Lomandra longifolia.
Lophostemon ‘Billy Bunter’ Western Flora Nursery
First cultivated commercially in Honolulu, Hawaii after the first introduction of trees in 1882. In Australia the industry really began in the 1970s with plantations in Queensland. Hawaian selections and hybrids between M. integrifolia and M. tetraphylla are grown in Australia as well as Australian Queensland selections which include ‘Hinde’ and ‘Own Choice’. Also a ‘Hidden valley’ series protected by PBR taken out by Hidden Valley Plantations, Beerwah, Qld.
Cultivars are recorded by the Australian Macadamia Society, Department of Agriculture and the PBR Office.
For such a large genus, and one so closely related to the cultivar-prolific Callistemon, there are remarkably few cultivars. M. bracteata cultivars have red and gold foliage and variable habits; M. fulgens various subspecies of M. fulgens form natural hybrids with M. radula. Several of these purple flowered offspring have been given cultivar names; M. incana has a number of different cultivars with grey or yellow foliage and variable compact or weeping habits; M. linariifolia has a dwarf form and M. thymifolia has white and pink flowered cultivars and forms with compact habits.
Melaleuca bracteata ‘Golden Gem’ AP 1976 8: 328.
Cook, Graham & Esther 1998. Riceflower Ozothamnus diosmifolius, an Everlasting Daisy as Commercial Cutflowers. Australian Plants 19 (155): 304–313.
George Lullfitz of Lullfitz Nursery, Wanneroo, WA has selected Pimelea ‘Bonne Petite’.
Prostanthera cuneata ‘Alpine Gold’ 1977 AP 9: 82.
Cultivars few e.g. P. obovatus ‘Cobtus’ is a PBR application accepted in 2000 produced by seedling selection and propagated by cuttings.
These are grown mostly as habit or flower colour selections from the wild or seedling selections.
Pultenaea pedunculata ‘Pyalong Gold’ AP 1989 15 (119): 15.
Pultenaea pedunculata ‘Pyalong Pink’ AP 1989 15 (119): 15.
Pultenaea villosa ‘Wallum Gold’ AP 1989 15 (119): 15.
Beng Tan 2001. ‘Pink Everlasting Daisy’. Australian Plants 21(167): 110–114.
Variants of S. aemula have ben produced by controlled pollination.
From the 1980s the enormous ornamental foliage potential of “Lilly Pilly” cultivars (cultivars of Acmena smithii, Syzygium australe, Syzygium luehmannii and Syzygium paniculatum) was explored (Logan, 1999). The brother and sister Costin team has worked on Syzygium luehmannii and S. paniculatum dwarf forms and compact forms of S. australe over the period 1997-2000 using open pollination & selection: also controlled breeding S. wilsonii x S. luehmannii and the use of S. francisii. Syzygium ‘Undercover’ Also mainly from Western Flora Nursery, Coorow, WA trading through Multiplant Pty Ltd using controlled pollination, selection and propagation by tissue culture.
Logan, Richard 1999. “Lilly Pilly Cultivars”. Australian Plants 20 (159): 106–107.
The stunning form of Telopea flowers attracted early breeding trials an in 1962 it was researched by botanist and arborist Dr Robert Boden (Robert William Boden, 1935–2009, Director of the Australian National Botanic Gardens 1979–1989). Further development by Richard Powell led to the cultivar T. ‘Braidwood Brilliant’ registered in 1975. T. speciosissima ‘Wirrimbirra White’ was the first cultivar in the genus, a white flowered variant named after the Environmental Centre near Bargo, New South Wales, and managed by Thistle Y. Stead (formerly Thistle Yolette Harris (1902–1990)) an early author of a “new breed” of writers promoting the growth of native plants, notably Wildflowers of Australia (1938) and Australian Plants for the Garden (1953) (Webb, 1998). Other work has been done by the Agronomy Unit of the University of Sydney with open pollinated seedling selection for ’Sunburst’ and ‘Sunflare’ and the work of Cathy Offord, P Nixon & PB Goodwin.
Boden, Robert W. & Powell, R.H. 1973. A Waratah Hybrid. (T. x) Australian Plants 7: 168–170.
Nixon, Paul & Payne, William H. 1986. “Waratahs, the New Breed to the Year 2000.” Australian Plants 18 (147): 303–311.
Yellow Rock Nursery 1986. “How To Grow New Generation Waratahs” Australian Plants 18 (147): 323.
Tristania conferta ‘Variegata’ AP 1977 9: 80.
Tristania conferta ‘Perth Gold’ AP 1977 9: 80.
Xanthostemon chrysanthus ‘Expo Gold’ was used to launch World Expo 1988.
Sankowsky, G. & Payne, W. H. 1988.”’Expo Gold’ Xanthostemon chrysanthus.” Australian Plants 15 (117): 10.