The Scientific Revolution (roughly 1543-1687) was a historical period that merged with the Renaissance humanist revival of Greco-Roman culture and learning and the global European maritime exploration that we know as the Age of Discovery. This was also a time when the Church was rent by the Protestant Reformation and Catholic Counter-Reformation. These changes that took place between the 15th and 17th centuries, especially the emphasis on science, logic, combined with a sense of progress and improvement, found later expression in the 18th century Age of Enlightenment when Revolutions gave social expression to the influential intellectual ideals and ideas developed through this period with its desire for science and logic. Life-changing technologies had emerged together with a scientific mind-set that would flow into the Industrial Revolution.
Naturalistic explanations developed by the Pre-Socratic philosophers; Aristotle derives a detached empiricism based on syllogistic (deductive) logic and free of Plato’s transcendental mysticism (mostly in his Physica). Also to be challenged were: Ptolemaic geography and astronomy; Empedocles’s division of matter into Earth, Air, Fire, and Water; Eudoxus’s system of the heavens consisting of concentric spheres; the medicine and anatomy of Hippocrates and Galen
1348 – Great Plague c. 1425 – Emergence of perspective painting c. 1428 – Increasing use of engraved prints c. 1440 – Johannes Gutenberg – invention of the printing press which, when combined with engraved illustrations in perspective, transforms scientific communication 1462 – Publication of of compendium Epitome of Ptolemy’s Almagest 1469 – Publication of the influential Corpus Hermeticum 1473-1543 – Nicolaus Copernicus 1472 – Peuerbach’s New Theory of the Planets 1492 – Columbus lands in the New World 1493-1541 – Paracelsus 1494-1555 – Georg Agricola 1514 – Copernicus’s private circulation of Commentariolus, a precursor to his later heliocentric theory 1517– Luther launches the Reformation 1518 – London College of Physicians given a royal charter as a guild and learned society 1522 – Magellan expedition circumnavigates the world c. 1530 – Paracelsus develops iatrochemistry a form of alchemy devoted to extending life, thus a kind of pharmacy. He probably coined the word ‘chemistry’
————– 1543 – Nicolaus Copernicus publication De Revolutionibus Orbium Coelestium (On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres) often taken, with Versalius’s work, as the commencing date for the Scientific Revolution 1543 – Versalius’s De Humani Corporis Fabrica a treatise on human anatomy – supercedes Galen’s work and serves as a forerunner to the definitive Gray’s Anatomy first published in 1858 1545 – Girolamo Cordano – The Great Art – advances in algebraic method 1545 – Council of Trent sets off the Counter-reformation 1545 – Gerolamo Cardano – conceives the idea of complex numbers 1546-1601 – Tycho Brahe 1550 – Jyeshtadeva – Indian Kerala school mathematician, writes the Yuktibhāṣā, the world’s first calculus text with detailed derivations of many calculus theorems and formulae 1551 – Founding of Jesuit University Collegio Romano 1554 – Giovanni Benedetti – opposes Aristotle‘s theory of falling bodies 1556 – Georgius Agricola – De Re Metallica, a comprehensive account of mining and metallurgy 1561-1626 – Francis Bacon 1564-1642 – Galileo Galilei 1566 – Pedro Niunez – compendium on navigation and its instrumentation 1569 – Mercator’s cartographic projection published 1571-1630 – Johannes Kepler – laws of elliptic planetary motion 1572– Tycho Brahe observes new star as a supernova blazing for 18 months thus demonstrating that the superlunary sphere was not unchanging as Aristotle had claimed 1572 – Rafael Bombelli – writes Algebra treatise and uses imaginary numbers to solve cubic equations 1576 – Tycho Brahe massive observatory begins construction at Hven in Denmark 1582 – Conversion from Julian to Gregorian calendar 1591 – Francois Viete invention of Analytical Trigonometry,essential to the study of physics and astronomy 1591 – Galileo demonstrates that a 1 pound weight and a 100 pound weight, dropped at the same moment from the leaning tower of Pisa, hit the ground at the same time thus refuting Aristotele’s claim that the rate of fall of an object is dependent upon its weight 1596 – Gresham College founded as a precursor to the Royal Society of London 1596-1650 – Rene Descartes – Philosophy and laws of reflection 1597 – Andreas Libavius – publishes Alchemia, possibly the first chemistry textbook 1600 – William Gilbert’s – De Magnete is a nexemplary empirical study of electrical phenomena 1600 – Italian Dominican friar Giordano Bruno is tried for heresy by the Roman Inquisition for denial of core Catholic doctrines including eternal damnation, the Trinity, the divinity of Christ, the virginity of Mary, and transubstantiation. Found guilty he was burned at the stake but was remembered as a martyr for science – although the extent to which it was his scientific and astronomical views were the main heresy is debated 1604 – Kepler – made Imperial Mathematician in 1603 now publishes Astronomiae Pars Optica – optics 1605 – Sir Francis Bacon- in The Proficience and Advancement of Learning outlines his scientific method 1605 – Michal Sedziwój – publishes A New Light of Alchemy proposing a ‘food of life’ within air, now known as oxygen 1607 – Galileo – demonstrates that a fired projectile follows a parabolic path 1608 – Hans Lippershey – produced first refracting telescope in the Netherlands. Built by lens-makers in the spectacle industry. Claims first patent followed by Jacob Metius. Already in 1609 Galileo built himself one for astronomical observations 1609 – Kepler – Astronomia Nova – Laws of Planetary Motion and Mars following an elliptic orbit 1610 – Galileo – Sidereal Messenger – various significant astromical observations 1614 – John Napier – development of logarithms in Mirifici Logarithmorum Canonis Descriptio 1614 – John Napier discusses Napierian logarithms in Mirifici Logarithmorum Canonis Descriptio 1615 – Jean Beguin – publishes Tyrocinium Chymicum, a chemistry textbook containing the first ever chemical equation 1618– Thirty Years War begins 1619 – Kepler – Harmonia Mundi (Harmonies of the World) presents his Third Law concerning planetary orbits, the final step in rejection of the Aristotelian system 1619 – René Descartes – discovers analytic geometry though Fermat claims independent discovery 1620 – Francis Bacon – Novum Organum in which he challenges Aristotelian Scholasticism by developing a scientific method based on inductive reasoning, experiment, and observation 1623 – Galileo in The Assayer attacks Aristotle and the Scholastics in favor of mathematics and experimentation by considering the cases especially of of statics, dynamics, and his theory of matter 1627-1691 – Robert Boyle – the first modern chemist 1627 – Kepler – Rudolphine Tables, world’s most accurate astronomical tables including Tycho Brahe’s observations and Kepler’s laws of planetary motion 1628 – William Harvey – Anatomical Exercises on the Movement of the Heart and Blood or De Motu Cordis describing experiments demonstrating the circulation of the blood in a reinterpretation of the role of the heart as a pump that superceded the old doctrines of Greco-Roman physician Galen 1629-1695 – Christiaan Huygens 1629– Fermat – develops a rudimentary differential calculus 1631 – Pierre Gassendi – observes the transit of the planet Mercury across the disc of the Sun 1632 – Galileo – Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems – a comparison of the Ptolemaic and Copernican systems often interpreted as the final break with the Classical view of the natural order 1632-1723 – Antonie van Leeuwenhoek – develops a powerful single lens microscope 1632 – Galileo – in his Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems, Ptolemaic and Copernican summons all the evidence for the Copernican system 1633 – Galileo – summoned by the Inquisition in Rome and suspected of heresy by supporting the Copernican system. Forced to recant and placed under house arrest for life, the Dialogue … and Two Chief World Systems … becoming prohibited works though he saw it translated into Latin for other Europeans 1637 – Descartes – Discourse on Method published together with his Geometry (which discusses the motion can be represented by the curve of a graph and defined by its relation to planes of reference) also a description of scientific method. This and his Meditations had a profound and lasting influence on European thought. His skepticism derives ‘I think therefore I am’ from systematic doubt 1637– Fermat – claims proof of Fermat’s Last Theorem 1638 – Galileo’s – Discours on Two New Sciences published in Protestant Leiden and addressing the problem of motion the second science dealing with the strength of materials 1639 – Englishman Jeremiah Horrocks makes the first observation of the transit of Venus across the Sun 1641 – Descartes – his Meditations presents the case for the separation of mind and body, the dualism of a res cogitans (thinking thing or mind) and res extensa (extended thing or matter) 1642 – Blaise Pascal – invention of mechanical calculator 1644 – Evangelista Torricelli (1607–1647) – produces an operational mercury barometer 1644 – Descartes – Principles of Philosophy presents arguments for the Mechanical Philosophy, a universe of matter united across space and time by principles of motion and mechanical connections of contact, impact, pressure, causation 1646 – Thomas Browne coins the word ‘electricity’ 1647 – Johannes Hevelius – Selenographia a detailed and illustrated description of the surface of the Moon 1647 – Otto von Guericke constructs the first air pump 1648 – Jan Baptista van Helmont proposes that chemistry is foundational to physiology, his posthumous publication Ortus medicinae is a transitional work between alchemy and chemistry influencing Robert Boyle. Describes many experiments and an early version of the law of conservation of mass 1648 – first meeting of the Oxford Philosophical Society which advocated the formation of the Royal Society of London 1651 – Thomas Hobbes, philosopher and student of geometry, atomism, and optics publishes his political theory The Leviathan supporting mechanistic concepts and the benefits of the state in maintaining a rule of law 1653 – Montmor Academy of Paris meets for the first time as an important semi-private scientific society formed under patron Habert de Montmor. This would be one of many subsequent intellectual salons. Members included Huygens and Roberval of the Académie des Sciences 1654 – Otto von Guericke – invents vacuum pump, greatly improved by Robert Hooke in 1658 1654 – James Ussher – biblical scholar argues that having fully analyzed evidence in the Bible Holy Writ the date of Creation was 23 October 4004 BCE at 9.00 am 1654 – Pascal & Fermat – devise the theory of probability 1646-1716 – Gottfried Liebniz – calculus (with Newton); the pinwheel calculator Otto von Guericke – demonstrates vacuum pressure by using teams of horses to try and pull apart two metal hemispheres from which air had been removed 1660 – Antonie van Leeuwenhoek publishes illustrations of micro-organisms drawn using his new microscope 1660 – Otto von Guericke – electrostatic generator 1661 – Robert Boyle – The Sceptical Chymist examines the distinction between chemistry and alchemy and includes early concepts of atoms, molecules, and chemical reactions. Effectively launches modern chemistry arguing against Aristotelian and Paracelsian methods and distinguishes between acids and bases 1662 – Robert Boyle – Boyle’s law experimentally based description of the behavior of gases, specifically the relationship between pressure and volume in a closed system 1662 – formation of the Royal Society of London by Royal Charter 1665 – Robert Hooke – Micrographia includes exquisite etchings of microscopic sttructures including the famous ‘Hooke’s flea’ 1665 – Newton – develops the fundamental theorem of calculus and his version of infinitesimal calculus 1665 – Publication of the first edition of the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London 1666 – The Great fire of London 1666 – Foundation of the Parisian Académie des Sciences directed by Colbert with the patronage of Louis XIV. Positions are funded appointments not paying members who propose and elect new members as in London 1666 – Robert Boyle’s Origin of Form and Qualities is a precursor to studies of matter on the atomic level 1668 – Italian Francesco Redi demonstrates in Generation of Insects that, contra Aristotle, insects and other forms of life are not generated spontaneously 1668-1738 – Herman Boerhaave – ‘Father of Physiology’ Europe’s leading physician from Leiden University 1669 – Newton – builds his first reflecting telescope with an eyepiece and concave mirror 1671 – Jean Picard – Mesure de la terre (Measure of the Earth)provides measurements for the length of a meridian. His work on the pendulum clock would aid Newtonian speculation on the shape of the earth 1672 – Newton – notes in the Philosophical Transactions that white light is composed of a spectrum of colors (the rainbow), each color with a measurable angle of refraction 1673 – Christiaan Huygens – publishes Horologium oscillatorium (The oscillation of pendula), a study of the pendulum clock 1673 – Leibniz – develops his own version of infinitesimal calculus 1674 – John Mayow – proposes that particles in the air are needed for combustion and that particles are also transmitted by the lungs to the blood 1675 – Newton – theory of light, the prismatic decomposition of white light into a spectrum of colours 1675 – Ole Roemer – uses astronomical observations to show that the speed of light is finite 1677 – Antoni van Leeuwenhoek observes spermatozoa through a microscope arguing they are the source of reproductive matter 1678–1761 – Pierre Fauchard – the founder of dentistry 1678 – Edmond Halley publishes a catalogue of the stars in the Southern Hemisphere 1679 – Denis Papin (1647–1712) – invention of the steam digester, forerunner of the steam engine 1680s – Leibniz – works on symbolic logic 1683 – Elias Ashmole – donates his collections and library for the foundation of the Ashmolean Museum in Oxford, the first public museum in England 1684 – Leibniz’s – paper indicating notation for the calculus of infinitesimals 1687 – Isaac Newton – Principia Mathematica – the most influential and revered work of the Scientific Revolution establishing the foundational principles and the categories of force, mass, and acceleration as evidenced in three ‘laws of motion’ and principle of universal gravitation to give rise to what became known as classical mechanics
—————- 1690 – Christiaan Huygens – Treatise on Light a wave theory contra Newton’s particulate theory 1690 – John Locke – Essay Concerning Human Understanding knowledge of the nature must be contingent not necessry (probable not certain) and is based in sense experience not innate ideas – claiming that the mind is a tabula rasa or blank slate 1697 – Samuel Clarke’s translation of Rohault’s Treatise on Physics as a System of Natural Philosophy (1671) becomes a university textbook 1698 – Thomas Savery – patents an operational steam engine. In The Miner’s Friend; or, An Engine to Raise Water by Fire (1702) he claims it can pump water out of mines 1700 – Liebniz founds the Berlin Academy of Science 1704 – Newton publishes Opticks 1708 – Abraham Darby I 1678–1717 – famous father of three generations Darbys produces high-grade iron in a blast furnace fuelled by coke rather than charcoal 1712 – Thomas Newcomen (1664–1729) – produces the first practical steam engine water pump and becomes a central figure of the Industrial Revolution 1712 – Flamsteed’s Historia Coelestis Britannica logs the positions of 3000 stars, many more than listed in Brahe’s catalogue 1716 – Establishment of the Societa Botanica Florentina 1730 – John Hadley invents the reflecting octant, precursor to the sextant